Supplemental Readings and References
(e.g., Graves’ disease). In adults, hypothyroidism has an
insidious onset with a broad range of symptoms. The typ-
ical biochemical laboratory parameters include the mea-
surement of serum free T
and TSH, which are decreased
and increased, respectively. In addition, measurement of
serum autoantibodies for thyroglobulin and thyroperoxi-
dase is also utilized.
Supplemental Readings and References
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G. N. Burrow: Thyroid function and hyperfunction during gestation.
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ternal and fetal thyroid function.
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I. J. Chopra: Clinical review
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D. Glinoer: The regulation of thyroid function in pregnancy: pathways of
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J. H. Lazarus: Hyperthyroidism.
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R. S. Lindsay and A. D. Toft: Hypothyroidism.
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G. Medeiros-Neto, H. M. Targovnik, and G. Vassart: Defective thyroglobulin
synthesis and secretion causing goiter and hypothyroidism.
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A. J. Mixson, R. Parrilla, S. C. Ransom, et al.: Correlations of language
abnormalities with localization of mutations in the B-thyroid hormone
receptor in 13 kindreds with generalized resistance to thyroid hormone:
identification of four new mutations.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology
and Metabolism
75, 1039 (1992).
J. C. Morris: The clinical expression of thyrotropin receptor mutations.
195 (1998).
R. Paschke and M. Ludgate: Mechanism of disease: the thyrotropin receptor
in thyroid disease.
New England Journal of Medicine
337, 1675 (1997).
S. P. Porterfield and C. E. Hendrich: The role of thyroid hormones in prenatal
and neonatal neurological development—current perspectives.
S. Refetoff, R. E. Weiss, and S. J. Usala: The syndromes of resistance to
thyroid hormone.
Endocrine Review
1 4 , 348 (1993).
E. Roti, R. Minelli, E. Gardini, and L. E. Braverman: The use and misuse of
thyroid hormones.
Endocrine Review
1 4 ,401 (1993).
V. Singh and J. P. Catlett: Hematologic manifestations of thyroid disease.
8 , 87 (1998).
M. I. Surks and R. Sievert: Drug therapy: drugs and thyroid function.
England Journal of Medicine
333, 1688 (1995).
A. D. Toft: Thyroxine therapy.
New England Journal of Medicine
331, 174
Y. Tomer and T. F. Davies: Infection, thyroid disease, and autoimmunity.
Endocrine Review
1 4 , 107 (1993).
J. I. Totrens and H. B. Burch: Serum thyroglobulin measurement: utility in
clinical practice.
6 , 125 (1996).
G. Vassart and J. E. Dumont: The thyrotropin receptor and the regulation of
thyrocyte function and growth.
Endocrine Review
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A. De La Vieja, O. Dohan, O. Levy, et al.: Molecular analysis of the
sodium/iodide symporter: impact on thyroid and extrathyroid pathophys-
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A. P. Weetman and A. M. McGregor: Autoimmune thyroid disease: fur-
ther developments in our understanding.
Endocrine Review
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I. Klein and K. Ojamaa: Thyroid Hormone and the Cardiovascular System.
New England Journal of Medicine
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