Endocrine Metabolism I: Introduction
Endocrine cell 1
Endocrine cell 2
Endocrine cell 3
f i g u r e ; 30-14
Complex feedback regulation of hormone secretion. Hormones of level III endocrine tissues are regulated by a complex
system having both a neuroendocrine reflex component and a simple negative feedback component. Invariably, the
former involves the extrahypothalamic central nervous system (sensory neurons), the hypothalamus (endocrine cell
and the anterior pituitary (endocrine cell
), while the latter involves the anterior pituitary (endocrine cell
) and a level
III endocrine tissue (endocrine cell 3). Hormone 3 exerts negative feedback on endocrine cell 2 and hence on its own
secretion. Hormone 3 may also feed back to endocrine cell I and to higher centers, although such cases of feedback may
be positive ones.
Supplemental Readings and References
M. K. Bagchi, M. J. Tsai, B. W. O’Malley, and S. Y. Tsai: Analysis of
the mechanism of steroid hormone receptor-dependent gene activation in
D. M. Berman and A. G. Gilman: Mammalian RGS proteins: Barbarians at
Journal o f Biological C hem istry
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D. L. Bodenner and R. W. Lash: Thyroid disease mediated by molecular de-
fects in cell surface and nuclear receptors.
A m erican Journal o f M edicine
G. A. Brent: The molecular basis of thyroid hormone action.
New E ngland
Journal o f M edicine
331, 847 (1994).
D. L. Cadena and G. N. Gill: Receptor Tyrosine kinases.
M. A. Carson-Jurica, W. T. Schrader, and B. W. O’Malley: Steroid receptor
family: structure and functions.
L. De Vries, B. Zheng, T. Fischer, et al.: The regulator of G protein signaling
A nnual Review o f pharm acology and Toxicology
Z. Farfel, H. R. Bourne, and T. Iiri: The expanding spectrum of G protein
N ew E ngland Journal o f M edicine
M. E. Freeman, B. Kanyicska, A. Lerant, et al.: Prolactin: structure, function
and regulation of secretion.
U. Gether: Uncovering molecular mechanisms involved in activation of G
E ndocrine Reviews
21, 90 (2000).
C. K. Glass: Differential Recognition of target genes by nuclear receptor
monomers, dimers and heterodimers.
M. A. Lazar: Thyroid hormone receptors: Multiple forms, multiple possi-
E ndocrine Reviews
W. L. Miller: Molecular biology of steroid hormone synthesis.
M. Pfahl: Nuclear receptors/AP-1 interactions.
J. W. Putney, Jr. and G. S. Bird: The inositol phosphate-calcium signalling
system in nonexcitable cells.
E ndocrine R eviews
14, 610 (1993).
M. D. Ringel, W. F. Schwindinger, and M. A. Levine: Clinical implications of
genetic defects in G proteins: The molecular basis of McCune-Albright